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Trading and Investment Terminology


Sales Charge

The sales charge is a fee paid to purchase or sell a specific investment. 

It is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. 

The term is most often used when discussing mutual funds.


A sales ...

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sanku (three gaps) pattern

Also known by the Japanese word sanku, the Three Gaps candlestick pattern contains (surprise, surprise!) three distinct gaps. 


Although there are two different versions of the signa ...

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Scalpers enter and exit the financial markets quickly, usually within seconds, using higher levels of leverage to place larger sized trades in the hopes of achieving greater profits from relatively small price changes.


Sector Breakdown

Sectors commonly used for sector breakdown reporting include the following:

  1. A sector breakdown is the mix of sectors within a fund or portfolio, typically expressed as a portfolio percentage. Sector designations can vary depending o ...

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Security is commonly used for any form of financial instruments but the definition varies from place to place. In some places security specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some places, it in ...

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Shadowing is an informal way for someone to learn what it is like to perform a particular job at a workplace. 
An individual follows around, or shadows, the worker already in that role.

A shadow, or a wick, is a line found on a ...

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Share Classes

A share class is a designation applied to a specified type of security such as common stock or mutual fund unit.

Class A

Class A mutual fund shares generally have front-end sales charges also known as a "load& ...

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A shareholder can be defined as an individual, organization, or establishment possesses a minimum one share of an organization's security, which is referred to as equity.

Since shareholders are basically proprietors in an organization, ...

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Shareholder Equity

Shareholder equity (SE), also alluded to as stockholders' equity and shareholders' equity, can be defined as a company's owners' residual claim after obligations have been looked after.

Equity is equivalent to a company' ...

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Sharpe Ratio

The Sharpe ratio has become the most widely used method for calculating the risk-adjusted return.

The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. 

Sharpe and is used to help investors understand the return of an in ...

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shooting star

A shooting star formation is a bearish reversal pattern that consists of just one candle. 

It is formed when the price is pushed higher and immediately rejected lower so that it leaves behind a long wick to the upside. 

T ...

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Short Covering

 It means that the trade has earlier shorted and to the square of their positions, they had to buy. 

Since there were so many short positions created in the market, people start buying, and that leads to the market going positive ...

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Short Squeeze

A short squeeze could spell disaster for short-sellers unless they act quickly.

short squeeze is a situation in which a stock's price increase triggers a rush of buying activity among short-sellers. ...

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Short term Investment

A short-term investment is also called a temporary investment or marketable security

It is a debt or equity security that is expected to be sold or converted into cash in the next 3 to 12 months.


Usually, these inves ...

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Short-term investment

Short-term investment is also known as temporary investment. It can be a debt or equity security which the investor can sell or convert into cash in a period of 3 to 12 months. Short-term investments are holds to earn quick returns. Two main requirem ...

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Silk Route

The Silk Route was a noteworthy exchange route that dated from the second century B.C. until the fourteenth century A.D. It extended from Asia to the Mediterranean, navigating China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greece, and Italy.

It was named t ...

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Slow Stochastic

The Slow Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that shows the location of the close relative to the high-low range over a set number of periods. This indicator can range from 0 to 100.
The Slow Stochastic is of two lines, known as th ...

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Small Cap

The “cap” in small-cap stocks refers to a company’s capitalization as determined by the total market value of its publicly traded shares.


Companies that have a market capitalization ranging less than Rs 500 ...

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Sortino Ratio

Retail investors often struggle to select the ‘right’ investment scheme that matches their financial requirements and investing capability. However, with the help of financial ratios like the Sortino ratio, they can evaluate a scheme&r ...

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In the financial world, speculation, or speculative trading, can be defined as the act of leading a financial trade that has considerable risk of losing value but additionally holds the expectation of a critical gain or other significant value.


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Spinning Top

The spinning top candlestick chart pattern is a formation that occurs when buyers and sellers balance each other out, resulting in similar opening and closing price levels. 

Because of this relatively small change in market direction, ...

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Spinning Tops

Nickname for candle lines with small real bodies. And long upper and lower shadows. ...

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Spread Trading

Spread trading is a combination of a long and a short position at the same time in related futures contracts or options, called legs. 


The aim of Spread Trading is to gain profit from the widening or narrowing of the sp ...

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Standard & Poor's (S&P)

Standard & Poor's (S&P) is a major index supplier as well as information source of autonomous credit ratings.

It is also the supplier of the mainstream S&P 500 Index and the S&P BSE Senesex. S&P was established in t ...

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A star is a small real body that gaps above or below a long candlestick occurring the previous day. ...

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An indicator with an upper and lower band around a simple moving average of an asset's price. The upper band value is the simple moving average plus the average true range while the lower band is the simple moving average minus the average true range ...

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Stochastic Oscillator

The Stochastic Oscillator is an indicator that allows for huge versatility in trading. It was developed by George C. Lane in the late 1950s and is one of the most popular indicators used in Forex, indices, and stock trading.



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Stochastic RSI derives its values from the Relative Strength Index (RSI); it is the Stochastic indicator applied to the RSI indicator.


The Stochastic RSI indicator (Stoch RSI) is essentially an indicator.

It is used ...

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A stock is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company.

A stock is a security that represents the ownership of a fraction of a corporation.

Stocks are securities that represent an ownership share in a ...

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Stock Dividend

A stock dividend can be described as the distribution of reward from a part of the organization's income and is paid to a class of its investors.

Stock Dividends are determined and overseen by the board of directors of the company, how ...

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Stock valuation

Every investor who wants to beat the market must master the skill of stock valuation.

Stock valuation is an important tool that can help you make informed decisions about trading. 

It is a technique that determines the value o ...

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Stockholder/ Shareholder

A person who owns shares in a company and therefore gets part of the company's profits and the right to vote on how the company is controlled


An individual, group, or organization that holds one or more shares in a compa ...

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A stock is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company.

A stock is a security that represents the ownership of a fraction of a corporation.

Stocks are securities that represent an ownership share in a ...

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Stocks or Share

Stock is a certificate of ownership in a company or corporation.

It represents the claim on the company’s assets and earnings.


When you hold a company’s share you become the shareholder of that company. T ...

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Stop-Loss Order

A stop-loss order is a request placed with a broker to purchase or sell a stock when it arrives a specific price.

Stop-loss orders are intended to restrain an investor’s loss on a trade in a stock and are not the same as stop-limit o ...

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Swing Trading

Swing trading can be defined as a trading style that aims to catch profits in different kinds of securities over a period of a couple days to a few weeks.
Swing traders fundamentally utilize technical method of stock analysis to search for o ...

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Systematic Investment Plan

A systematic Investment Plan is an investment strategy wherein an investor needs to invest the same amount of money in a particular mutual fund at every stipulated period.


A Systematic Investment Plan (SIP), more popularly k ...

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Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is that part of the total risk that is caused by factors beyond the control of a specific company or individual. 

Systematic risk is caused by factors that are external to the organization. 



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Systemic Risk

Systemic risk is the possibility of an event at a company, entity, or group which can trigger a severe instability or can collapse the entire financial system, entire market, entire industry or economy. In the financial crisis of 2008 systemic ris ...

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