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Trading and Investment Terminology


130-30 Strategy

This strategy is often used to improve returns on portfolio. It uses financial leverage by shorting poor performing stocks and purchasing shares that are expected to have high returns. A 130-30 ratio implies shorting stocks up to 30% of the portfo ...

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52-Week High/Low

A 52-week high/low shows the highest and the lowest price at which a security has traded during the preceding year.

It is used as a technical indicator by traders and investors who consider the 52-week high/low as an important aspect in de ...

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52-Week Range

Technical analysts compare a stock's current trading price to its 52-week range to get a broad sense of how the stock is doing, as well as how much the stock's price has fluctuated. If the stock price moves above its 52-week high, it is us ...

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90/10 Strategy

For conservative investors, an investing strategy that involves deploying 90% of one's investment capital in interest-bearing instruments that have a lower degree of risk, and the balance 10% in high-risk investments. The 10% investment in hig ...

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Abandoned Baby

This is one of the very rare candlestick patterns for top or bottom reversal signal.

Japanese candlesticks patterns are unique, and some patterns are rarer than others. One such formation is the abandoned baby pattern


< ...

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An analysis of a range of items that have different levels of significance and should be handled or controlled differently. 

It is a form of Pareto analysis in which the items such as 

  1. Activities
  2. Customer ...

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Absolute Advantage

  • The father of modern economics (Adam Smith) says,
  • An individual, Business, Country, or a group, to produce a larger quantity of a product than its competitors. 
  • It also means that the same amount of resources are ne ...

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Accounting Equation

The Accounting Equation represents the relationship between the Assets, Liabilities, and Owner's equity of a person or a business.

It is the foundation for the double-entry bookkeeping system. The Accounting equation ensures that ...

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Accounting rate of return

It is also known as the Average rate of return.

ARR is a financial ratio used in capital budgeting.

By dividing the net income from an investment by the total amount invested in obtaining the ARR.

It means, if your business ...

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Accumulation means the amount of something is increasing over time.

Accumulation can also refer to the overall addition of positions to a portfolio.

In this sense, an investor is accumulating investments. 

As an invest ...

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Acid-Test Ratio

It is also known as the Quick Ratio.

The quick ratio uses only the most liquid current assets that can be converted to cash within 90 days or less. 

In the best-ca ...

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  • An acquisition is when one company purchases most or all of another company's shares to gain control of that company.
  • It occurs more regularly between small to medium-size firms than between large companies.
  •  Pu ...

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Advance Block

The advance block is the name given to a candlestick trading pattern.

  • An advance block is a three-period candlestick pattern considered to forecast a reversal.

An advance block consists of three candles and forms in a ...

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Adverse selection

It refers generally to a situation in which sellers have information that buyers do not have or vice versa.

  • In the common scenario, in the insurance sector those in dangerous jobs or high-risk lifestyles to purchase products like li ...

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ADX stands for Average Directional Movement Index and can be used to help measure the overall strength of a trend.

The ADX is primarily used as an indicator of momentum, or trend strength, but the total ADX system is also used as a directi ...

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After-Hours Trading

1. It occurs after the market closes when an investor can buy and sell securities outside of regular trading hours.

2. They use Electronic communication networks (ECNs) rather than traditional markets to match potential buyers and sellers. ...

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Algorithmic trading

Algorithm trading is a system of trading that facilitates transaction decision making in the financial markets using advanced mathematical tools.

This method uses computer codes and charts analysis to enter and exit trades according to set ...

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An allotment generally refers to a quota of shares given to a participating underwriting firm at the time of an initial public offering (IPO).

Remaining surpluses go to rest of the firms that have won the tender for the right to sell the l ...

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Alpha, also known as "excess return" or "abnormal rate of return," is one of the most widely used measures of risk-adjusted-performance.

Alpha is used to measure performance on a risk-adjusted basis.



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Altcoins are the different cryptocurrencies started after the achievements of Bitcoin.

For the most part, they offer themselves as a better option to Bitcoin.

The expression "altcoins" alludes to all digital currencies ot ...

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Alternative Minimum Tax(AMT)

  1. An alternative minimum tax (AMT) is a tax that ensures that taxpayers pay at least the minimum.
  2. This is a special tax that prevents people with high incomes from abusing deductions and credits to pay little or no income tax.  ...

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Altman Z-Score

The Altman Z-score can be defined as the yield of a credit-quality test that checks a publicly-traded manufacturing organization's probability of bankruptcy.

The Altman Z-score depends on 5 financial ratios that can compute from data i ...

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The action or process of uniting or merging two or more things

It is defined as the combination of one or more companies into a new entity. It includes:

  1. Two or more companies join to form a new company
  2. Absorption o ...

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American Depositary Receipt(ADR)

It is negotiable security, that represents securities of a company that are issued by the U.S Bank.
The stocks of foreign companies are traded in the American markets and are purchased by investors in the U.S.
Investors can purchase AD ...

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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

 It is a parametric statistical technique used to compare datasets. This technique was invented by R.A. Fisher.

An ANOVA test is a way to find out if the surveyor experiment results are sign ...

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Andrew's Pitchfork

Andrew's Pitchfork indicator is a tool used for trend trading and also to predict market reversals.

The structure of the Andrews Pitchfork indicator consists of two parallel lines and a median line in the middle.

It helps you i ...

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Angel Investor

They are also known as a 

Business angel

Informal investor

Angel funder 

Private investor 

Seed investor

  1. It is an individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usuall ...

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An estimate of the sum of money that an individual or a business generates over a year.

Annualized income figures can help create budgets and make estimated income tax payments.

An annualized rate of return or forecast is not guara ...

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Annual Percentage Rate(APR)

APR or Annual Percentage Rate is a very common term in the banking world.

This term might confuse first-time loan borrowers.

 APR is the interest applied to the total amount of loan borrowed by an individual in a year.


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Annual Report

An annual report is a distribution that publicly traded organizations have to provide on a yearly basis to its investors to explain their operations and financial situations.

The forward portion of the report generally contains graphics, p ...

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Annual Return

The annual return can be describes as the profits that an investment gives over a stretch of time, formatted as a time-weighted annual percentage.

Origins of profits can incorporate dividends, profits of capital and capital appreciation....

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Annualized rate of return

The annual growth rate of investment is over a specified period of longer than one year.
The Annualized rate of return is also called the Compound growth rate.
It is the average return an investor has earned on the investments after a ...

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In general terms, is an increase in the value of an asset over time.

The increase can occur for several reasons, including 

Increased demand 

Weakening supply

As a result of changes in inflation or interes ...

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Aroon Indicator

The Aroon indicator was developed by Tushar Chande in 1995.
Aroon is an indicator system that determines whether a stock is trending or not and how strong the trend is.

When it comes to day trading, strategies based on the Aroon indi ...

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Ascending Triangle

The ascending triangle formation is a continuation pattern and as the name suggests it has the shape of a triangle. 


It is also known as a bullish triangle because it leads to a bullish breakout. 



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An asset can be defined as a resource with monetary value that a person, organization, or nation controls or owns with the desire that it will give a future advantage.

Assets are shown on an organization's balance sheet and are purchas ...

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Asset Allocation

Asset allocation involves dividing your investments among different assets, such as stocks, bonds, and cash.
The purpose of asset allocation is to maximize returns and minimize risk
In other words, The selection of securities is second ...

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Asset Class

An asset class is a collection of securities,


Comparable traits 

And it goes through similar market fluctuations. 

Similar legalities almost always bind securities in one asset class.


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Developed by J. Welles Wilder, the Average True Range (ATR) is an indicator that measures volatility.

Wilder designed ATR with commodities and daily prices in mind.


Commodities are frequently more volatile than stock ...

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The expression audit usually is used in order to allude to a fiscal summary audit.

A fiscal audit is an objective evaluation and assessment of the fiscal reports of an association to ensure that the fiscal records are a reasonable as well ...

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Authorized Share Capital

Authorized share capital—also known as "authorized stock," "authorized shares," or "authorized capital stock" 


It refers to the maximum number of shares a company is legally allowed t ...

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Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

An Automated Teller Machine or ATM is an electronic banking outlet that enables customers to carry on essential transactions without the need of a bank representative. Anybody with a credit or debit card can get to most ATMs. Although, certain cre ...

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ADX is non-directional and it only quantifies the strength of the trend regardless of whether it is up or down. ADX is usually plotted in a chart window along with two lines known as the DMI (Directional Movement Indicators). ADX is derived from t ...

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Average Maturity

The average time for the maturity of securities held by a mutual fund.
Average Maturity is also called Weighted Average Maturity.
Changes in interest rates have a greater impact on funds with longer average maturity.
Average matu ...

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Average Return

The average return can be defined as the basic mathematical average of returns created over a particular time frame.


An average return is determined in a similar way as simple average is determined for any arrangement of num ...

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Average Selling Price (ASP)

The term Average Selling Price or ASP is the price, which a particular quality of goods or services are generally sold at. The average selling price is influenced by the kind of product and its life cycle.


The average sellin ...

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Back Testing

Backtesting involves applying a strategy or predictive model to historical data to determine its accuracy.


It allows traders to test trading strategies without the need to risk 



C ...

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Balance Sheet

A balance sheet is a financial report that shows a company's assets, liabilities and investors' equity at a specific particular in time, and gives a premise for calculating rates of return and assessing its capital structure. It is a fisca ...

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Balanced Funds

The balanced fund is a type of mutual fund that contains both stocks and bonds. It is also called a blended fund.

The balanced fund is a middle-of-the-road fund made up of investments that will achieve both moderate-income and moderate cap ...

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Base Metals

Base metals are common metals that tarnish, oxidize, or corrode relatively quickly when exposed to air or moisture. 

They are widely used in commercial and industrial applications,   construction, and manufacturing.

Base ...

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Basis Trading

Basis trading is a financial arbitrage trading strategy that involves the trading of a financial instrument, such as a financial derivative or a commodity, with the motive of profiting from the apparent mispricing of the securities. 


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Bear Market

A bear market is the point at which a market encounters prolonged price falls. It depicts a condition wherein prices of stocks fall 20% or more from ongoing highs in the midst pessimism and negative sentiment from trader.


Be ...

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Bear Raid

A strategy used on the stock market, where traders try to forcibly lower the price of a stock to cover the price of a short position. 

This is normally achieved by spreading negative rumors about the target company, which puts negativ ...

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Bear Trap

A bear trap occurs when shorts take on a position when a stock is breaking down, only to have the stock reverse and shoot higher. 


This counter move produces a trap and often leads to sharp rallies.



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bearish belt-hold

The Bearish Belt Hold candlestick pattern is a bearish reversal candlestick pattern that can form anywhere in an uptrend or a downtrend.

 A Bearish Belt Hold candlestick pattern is easily identified due to its lack of an upper shadow. ...

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bearish engulfing pattern

Bearish Engulfing is one of the important bearish reversal patterns. It appears after an uptrend. 


It's a two candlestick pattern.


It is characterized by a red candle being engulfed by a large ...

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Bench Mark

A benchmark is something whose quality or quantity is known, with which other things can be compared.

A benchmark is used for measurements, that can analyze the allocation, risk, and return of a given portfolio.

A variety of benchm ...

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Beta is a numeric value that measures the fluctuations of a stock to changes in the overall stock market.

Beta is the key factor used in the Capital Asset Price Model (CAPM) which is a model that measures the return of a stock. 


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Big Mac Index

An index devised by 'The Economist' magazine to illustrate the notion of purchasing power parity. The Big Mac Index compares the price of McDonald's Big Mac burgers in various countries as a guide to whether currencies are overvalued o ...

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Binary Option

 Binary options are a derivative that can be traded on any instrument or market. 

They appeal because they are straightforward. You know precisely how much you could win, or lose before you make the trade. 



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black opening shaven head

A Shaven Head Candlestick is similar to the Hammer Candlestick, with the key difference being that there is no head on the candle. 


It consists of a bullish or bearish candlestick with a small body at the candle high, w ...

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The term blockchain has been around for almost over a decade now. Whenever terms like Bitcoin, Ether, Ripple etc. are used, a term that is often used with them is Blockchain. This because most of the cryptocurrencies are built on this technology. ...

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Blockchain as a Service (BaaS)

Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) can be defined as the third party creation as well as management of cloud based systems for organizations in the business of making blockchain software.


These third party services are a relativ ...

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Blue Chip

A blue chip can be defined as a nation wide recognized, well-established, and financially solid organization.


Blue chips by and large sell high quality, broadly accepted goods and services.


Blue chip o ...

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Board of Trustee

A group of people who are responsible for making rules, or Financial decision.
The group of individuals that has overall responsibility for the management of an organization.
It is based on Government.
Board of trustees can often ...

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Bollinger bands

Bollinger Bands are a technical trading tool created by John Bollinger in the early 1980s. 

They arose from the need for adaptive trading bands and the observation that volatility was dynamic, not static as was widely believed at the ...

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Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE)

The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is the first and biggest stock market exchange in India and was started in the year 1875 as the Native Share and Stock Brokers' Association.


Situated in Mumbai, India, the Bombay Stock Exc ...

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A bond is a loan to a company or government that pays investors a fixed rate of return over a specific timeframe.

A bond is an agreement between an investor and the company, government, or government agency that issues the bond.

Fo ...

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Bond Fund

A bond fund also called a debt fund, invests primarily in bonds Government

Convertible and other debt instruments, like mortgage-backed securities (MBS), with the primary goal of generating monthly i ...

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Breadth / Breadth Ratio

The ratio is found by dividing the volume in up stocks by the volume in down stocks for a given time (daily, weekly, etc) 


For Example


If 30 million shares are moving up wh ...

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Break Point

It loads mutual funds, Breakpoints are the dollar amounts for the purchase of the fund's shares that qualifies the investor for reduced sales charges. 

They allow for reduced fees for large purchases, which often benefit instituti ...

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Breakaway Gap

A gap is one of the most important special trading price bar configurations. 

A gap is a major, visible discontinuity between two price bars on a chart.

 A breakaway gap is an important event because it almo ...

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A breakdown is a downward move in a security's price, usually through an identified level of support, that portends further declines.

A breakdown commonly occurs on heavy volume and the subsequent move lower tends to be quick in durati ...

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A breakout is when the price moves above a resistance level or moves below a support level.

Breakouts can be subjective since not all traders will recognize or use the same support and resistance levels.

Breakouts provide possible ...

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Breakout traders

A breakout occurs when the price moves beyond a certain level.


So, breakout trading is entering trades when momentum is in your favor.


To understand breakout trading, it is important to remember two ty ...

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Brexit is an contraction for "British exit," referring to the United Kingdom's choice in a June 23, 2016 referendum to exit the European Union (EU).


The poll's outcome defied expectations and troubled marke ...

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Broadening Top

A broadening top is a bullish reversal pattern. 

The pattern is formed by two divergent lines which are horizontally symmetric. 

It is therefore a reverse symmetrical triangle. 


The oscillation ...

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Bull Market

A bull market is the state of a financial markets in which the prices either experience a rise or are expected to experience a rise.


The expression "b ...

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Bull Trap

A bull trap occurs when traders take a long position and then have price reverse and move lower very sharply.


The long-positioned trader is trapped and this pattern often follows a very similar rhythm of luring traders into ...

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Bullish belt-hold

The Belt-Hold candlestick pattern (or yorikiri as it is known in Japanese) 

It is considered a minor trend reversal pattern that can indicate a bullish or bearish trend reversal, depending on the nature of the patte ...

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Bullish engulfing pattern

The Bullish Engulfing Candlestick Pattern is a bullish reversal pattern, usually occurring at the bottom of a downtrend. 


The Bullish Engulfing pattern is a two-day bullish pattern that forms ...

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Buy and Sell Agreement

A buy and sell agreement can be defined as a legitimately binding agreement that stipulates how a partner's share in the company might be reassigned if that partner dies or in any case leaves the business.


Most of the ti ...

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Buying Climax

A situation in which a security's price has risen very quickly and very high on heavy trading volume. A buying climax is often followed by steep price correction.


The Buying Climax takes place at the market highs.

< ...

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C Corporation

A C-corporation (or C-corp) can be defined as a legal structure for an organization in which the owners, or investors, are taxed independently from the entity.

C corporations, the most common of organizations, are likewise subject to corpo ...

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Call Option

Call options are derivative agreements that provides the option purchaser with the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a stock, bond or a commodity at a particular price within a particular period of time. The stock, bond, or commodity here ...

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candlestick charts

Steven Nison introduced candlesticks to the Western world with his book “Japanese Candlestick Charting Techniques”. 

Candlesticks have become a staple of every trading platform and charting program for literally every fina ...

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Capital is a large sum of money which you use to start a business, or which you invest to make more money
It is the part of an amount of money borrowed or invested which does not include interest.
Capital is a key part of running a bus ...

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Capital Gain

Capital gain is the profit one earns on the sale of an asset like stocks, bonds, or real estate. 
The gain occurs when the current or sale price of an asset or investment exceeds its purchase price

In capital gain when the selli ...

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Capital Gain Long Term

A profit on the sale of a security or mutual fund share that has been held for more than one year.
One buys a stock or bond and sells it, five years later for more than what was paid, this is known a long-term capital gain.

For examp ...

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Capital Loss

A capital loss is a decrease in the value of an investment. 

A capital loss arises when the cost price is higher than the selling price.

A capital loss is a reduction in the value of a company’s capital, That is Investme ...

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In finance, capitalization refers to the cost of capital in the form of a corporation's, StockLong-term debt, Retained earnings. 

Also, Market capitalization refers to the number of outstanding shares multiplied by the share ...

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Captain Gain Short Term

Short Term Capital Gains Tax is the tax levied on profits generated from the sale of an asset which is held for a government-defined short period is called short-term capital gains tax.

Short-term capital gains can be explained as the prof ...

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Cash Dividend

A cash dividend can be defined as cash or funds paid to investors usually as part of the organization's present income or gathered profits.


The board of directors must announce the issuing of all dividends and determine ...

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Cash Equivalent

A cash equivalent is a highly liquid investment having a maturity of three months or less.
These include 
Bank certificates of deposit
Banker’s acceptances
Treasury bills
Commercial paper and 
Ot ...

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Chaikin Oscillator

The Chaikin oscillator is named for its creator Marc Chaikin.


The basic premise of the Accumulation/Distribution Line is that the degree of buying or selling pressure can be determined by the location of the close, relative ...

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Chande Momentum Oscillator

The Chande Momentum Oscillator (CMO) developed by Tushar Chande attempts to capture the momentum of the instrument. The indicator oscillates between -100 and 100 with an overbought level of 50 and an oversold level of -50.

< ...

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A channel may refer to a distribution system for businesses or a trading range between support and resistance on a price chart.


Distribution channels describe the method by which a product moves from producer to consumer.


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Chart patterns

Chart patterns are an integral part of technical analysis which looks at the big picture and help to identify the trading signals. History repeats itself, the theory behind chart patterns is based on this assumption. Means certain patterns occur a ...

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Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

A chief executive officer or CEO is the highest-ranking official in a company, whose essential duties incorporate settling on major corporate decisions, dealing with the general operations and assets of a company, acting as the central point of co ...

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Collateral is a resource that a bank or a money lender holds as security for advancing a loan.


On the off chance that the borrower defaults on her advance installments, the lender may hold onto the collateral and offer it fo ...

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Commodity is a basic good or raw material which is used in commerce and interchangeable with other commodities of the same type. Commodities are used in the production of other goods. The quality of a commodity may slightly differ but essentially ...

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Common Stock

Common stock is also called Capital Stock.
It’s a way to divide up the ownership of a company.

Common Stock gives the voting right to Shareholders.
Stockholders receive one vote per share. 
Stockholders also re ...

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Compound Annual Growth Rate – CAGR

Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is the rate of return necessary for an investment to develop from its starting point to its ending point, with the assumption that benefits were reinvested towards the end of every year of the investments term....

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Contingent Deferred Sale Charge

It is also called a back-end load.
It is a fee paid to sell a specific investment. 
It is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested, and may also be called an exit fee or a redemption charge.
Contingent deferred sales ...

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Continuation Pattern

Continuation Patterns are recognizable chart patterns that signify a period of temporary consolidation before continuing in the direction of the original trend. 

Consolidation appears in the form of sideways price movement. 


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Corporate Bond

Any company can issue corporate bonds, also called Non-Convertible Debentures.

Corporate bond funds are debt funds that lend at least 80% of their money to companies with the highest possible credit rating. 


Thi ...

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Cost of Revenue

The cost of revenue can be defined as the total expense of assembling as well as delivering a good or service to customers.


Cost of revenue information can be found in a organization's income statement and is intended to ...

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A coupon or coupon payment is the annual interest rate paid on a bond, expressed as a percentage of the face value and paid from the issue date until maturity


For example 

A $1,000 bond with a coupon of 7% pays ...

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A cryptocurrency can be defined as a virtual or digital currency that is protected by cryptography, which makes it nearly impossible for anyone to counterfeit it or double-spend it.


Most of the cryptocurrencies are decentral ...

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Cup and Handle Pattern

It was developed by William O'Neil and introduced in his 1988 book, How to Make Money in Stocks.


The cup and Handle pattern is one of the most important chart patterns to make money in the stock market.


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Current Yield

The current yield is an investment's annual income (interest or dividends) divided by the current price of the security.


This measure examines the current price of a bond, rather than looking at its face value.

T ...

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  1. The cutoff time is the time at which a bank stops crediting same-day deposits.
  2. A cutoff point is a subjective point at which an investor decides whether or not a security is worth buying.
  3. The cut-off time is 2 pm for liq ...

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Daily Dividend Factor

Daily factor represents a tiny percentage, many high-level banking and trust institutions will provide this daily interest calculation to their most critical institutional accounts. 

For example
The daily factor for a certificat ...

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Dark-cloud cover

The Dark Cloud Cover pattern is a candlestick pattern that signals a potential reversal to the downside. 

It appears at the top of an uptrend and involves a large green (bullish) candle, followed by a red (bearish) candle that creates ...

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Dead Cross

Negative convergence may lead to severe selling pressure and the price may stay weak for a month to a year.


The death cross is a chart pattern that indicates the transition from a bull market to a bear market. 

< ...

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Debt Service Ratio

This ratio measures the net operating income available to pay the short-term debt. 

The DSCR is a useful benchmark to measure an individual or firm’s ability to meet their debt payments with cash.

A higher ratio implies ...

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1. Default is the failure to repay a debt including interest or principal on a loan or security. 

2. A default can occur when a borrower is unable to make 

  • Timely payments
  • Misses payments
  • Avoids ...

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Dematerialization (DEMAT)

Dematerialization (DEMAT) can be defined as the change from physical security certificates to electronic accounting.


Actual security certificates are then expelled and eventually retired from circulation in return for electr ...

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Demonetization can be described as the action of depriving a currency unit of its value as legal tender.


It happens at a point when there is a change in currency of a country: The present form or forms of cashis pulled from ...

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A derivative can be defined as a financial security with its worth that is dependent upon or derived from, a security or group of securities i.e. a benchmark index.


The derivative itself is a agreement between at least two p ...

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Descending Triangle

The descending triangle pattern is a continuation chart pattern that develops in the middle of a downtrend. However, in some instances, this can play as a descending triangle reversal. Also known as the bullish descendin ...

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Discounted cash flow

Discounted Cash Flow is a method of estimating what an asset is worth today by using projected cash flows.

 It tells you how much money you can spend on the investment right now to get the desired return in the future.

 < ...

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Displaced moving average

A moving average that has been adjusted forward or back in time to forecast trends. 

Displaced moving averages are constructed by taking the moving average and shifting it by a number of intervals, either positive or negative. ...

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The name of this pattern speaks of its character. We have a divergence when the price movement is contrary to the indicator movement. This type of Regular Divergence pattern comes in two forms

Two types of Diverg ...

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Diversification is a risk management technique that blends a wide assortment of investments inside a portfolio.

A diversified portfolio contains a blend of distinct resource types and investment vehicles in an attempt at constraining expos ...

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A dividend is the distribution of reward from a part of the company's revenue and is paid to a class of its investors.


Dividends are determined and overseen by the board of directors of the company, however they must be ...

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Dividend Growth Rate

The dividend growth rate can be defined as the annualized percentage rate of development that a particular security’s dividend payment experiences over a stretch of time.


Having the option to figure the dividend growth ...

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Dividend Rate

The dividend rate can be defined as the total expected dividend payments from an investment, fund or portfolio formatted as an annualized premise in addition to any extra non recurring dividends that an investor may get during that time frame.


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Dividend Yield

The dividend yield can be defined as the ratio of a organization's yearly dividend contrasted with its stock price per share.


The dividend yield is shown as a rate and is calculated as follows:


Div ...

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A Doji is a candlestick pattern that looks like a cross as the opening price and the closing prices are equal or almost the same.


A Doji is quite often found at the bottom and top of trends and thus is considered as a sign o ...

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Dollar Cost Averaging

Dollar-cost averaging is a tool an investor can use to build savings and wealth over a long period. 

It is also a way for an investor to neutralize short-term volatility in the broader equity market. 

A perfect example of ...

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Donchian Channels

Donchian channels are a technical indicator developed by Richard Donchian a famous commodities and futures trader.


The Donchian channel is a useful indicator of seeing the volatility of a market pr ...

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Double Bottom

The Double Bottom Reversal is a bullish reversal pattern typically found on bar charts, line charts, and candlestick charts. 


As its name implies, the pattern is made up of two consecutive troughs that are roughly equal ...

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Dow Jones Industrial Average (Dow)

The Dow Jones Industrial Average is the second-oldest and best-known stock market index.
It measures the daily price movements of 30 large American companies 
New York Stock Exchange.

It is widely viewed ...

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A downtick can be defined as a transaction for a financial security that happens at a lower price than the last transaction.


A downtick happens when a security's price falls in comparison to the previous trade.

& ...

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Dumpling tops

A candlestick charting pattern that is similar to the Western rounding top. A window to the downside is needed to confirm this as a top. Its bullish opposite is the frypan bottom


 A dumpling top structure is comprised o ...

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Dutch Auction

Dutch auction is a method for pricing shares (often in an initial public offering) whereby the price of the shares offered is lowered until there are enough bids to sell all shares. All the shares are then sold at that ...

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Dynamic Hedging Strategy

Dynamic hedging is a technique that is widely used by derivatives dealers to hedge gamma or vega exposures. 

Because it involves adjusting a hedge as the underlier moves often several times a day it is “dyn ...

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Earnings normally allude to after tax net income, some times referred to as the bottom line or an organization's profits.


Earnings are the primary determinant of an organization's stock price, since earnings and the ...

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Earnings Per Share – EPS

Earnings per share (EPS) is determined as an company's benefit divided by the outstanding shares of its common security. The outcome fills in as a sign of a company's growth and profitability.


EPS basically shows the ...

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Earnings Yield

The earnings yield can be defined as the earnings per share for the latest year divided by the present market price per share.


The earnings yield (which is the converse of the price to earnings ratio) shows the percentage of ...

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Efficient market Hypothesis

The Efficient Market Hypothesis, known as EMH in the investment community, is one of the underlying reasons investors may choose a passive investing strategy.
There are 3 forms of the efficient market hypothesis: 

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An entrepreneur is a person who makes a new business, bearing greater part of the dangers and getting most of the rewards. The entrepreneur is usually observed as an innovator, a source of new ideas, products, services, and business/or methodologi ...

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Formed by two moving averages that define upper and lower price range levels. These averages are plotted certain percentages above and below the average price line in a trading chart. The purpose of an envelope is to dampen or help escape the effect ...

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Equity Fund

An equity fund is a mutual fund that invests principally in stocks. 
It can be actively or passively managed. 
Equity funds are also known as stock funds.
Equity funds are also categorized by whether they are domestic ( ...

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Ethical Investing

Ethical investing can be defined as the act of utilizing one's ethical standards as the essential filter for the choosing of stocks for investing.


Ethical investing relies upon the speculator's perspectives.


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European Union

The European Union or the EU is a group of 28 nations that works as a cohesive economic and political square. Nineteen of the nations use the euro as their default currency.


The European Union became out of a craving to fram ...

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Evening Star

The Evening Star pattern is a set of three candlesticks that many traders consider to be a “topping” signal, meaning that it’s time to cash out before the stock turns down.


The evening star is a strong indi ...

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Ex Dividend Date

The ex-dividend date is a day on which stock goes ex-dividend.

The ex-dividend date for stocks is usually set one business day before the record date.


For Example:

On September 9, 2017, ...

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Exchange Privilege

A feature offered by some mutual fund families in which an investor can switch from one mutual fund to another within the fund family without having to pay a sales charge.

  • Investors who take advantage of exchange privilege within a ...

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Exchange Traded Derivative

An exchange traded derivative can be defined as a financial agreement that is listed as well as trades on a regulated stock market exchange.


Basically, these are derivatives that are traded in a controlled manner.

&n ...

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Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

An exchange traded fund (ETF) is a sort of investment that includes an array of securities; for example, stocks—that generally track an underlying index, in spite of the fact that they can put resources into any number of industry segments o ...

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Expense Date

Earnings typically refer to after-tax net income, sometimes known as the bottom line or a company's profits.
Earnings are the main determinant of a company's share price because earnings and the circumstances relating to them can ind ...

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Expense Ratio

The expense ratio is the annual maintenance charge levied by mutual funds to finance its expenses. 
It includes annual operating costs, including management fees, allocation charges, advertising costs, etc. of the fund.
An expense ...

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Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is an adaptable markup language for organized digital documents.

Extensible Markup Language is a markup language that characterizes a lot of rules for encoding files in an arrangement that is both human-rea ...

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Factors of Production

Factors of production are the sources required for the formation of a good or service. The factors of production primarily incorporate land, labor, entrepreneurship, and capital.


Land as a Factor


Land ...

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Falling Three Methods

The falling three candlestick pattern is a part of a downward trend which means the bears are dominant in the market. The pattern is formed when the bulls start taking over but are not able to completely dominate the bears.



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Fast Fashion

Fast fashion is the expression used to portray attire designs that move rapidly from the catwalk to outlets to meet new trends.


The collections are usually founded on designs introduced at Fashion Week occasions. Fast fashio ...

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Federal Funds Rate

The federal funds rate is the interest rate banks charge each other for overnight loans to meet reserve requirements. 
If a bank can’t meet its reserve requirements, it can borrow money from the Federal Reserve or from other banks ...

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Federal Reserve Board

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, also known as the Federal Reserve Board (FRB), is the governing body of the Federal Reserve System.

  • The Federal Reserve Board (FRB) is the governing body of the Federal Reserve S ...

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Fibonacci Arcs

Fibonacci arcs are concentrical circles plotted at the endpoint of the trendline their radii are based on Fibonacci ratios


After the uptrend, these circles might signify support zones, while after the d ...

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Fibonacci Fan

Fibonacci fans are a combination of trendlines plotted from a single point and distant from each other based on Fibonacci ratios.


Fibonacci fans share the main idea with Fibonacci retracements: using Fi ...

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Fibonacci Numbers

Fibonacci numbers are utilized to make technical indicators with the help of a mathematical sequence created in the 13th century by the Italian mathematician Leonardo Bonacci.


The name with which he is more widely recognized ...

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Fibonacci Time Zones

Fibonacci Time Zones are a series of vertical lines.

  • Fibonacci time zones are vertical lines that represent potential areas where a swing high, low, or reversal could occur.
  • Fibonacci time zones may n ...

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Financial Instrument

Financial instruments are the monetary contract between parties which can be created, modified, traded, and settled. In other words, financial instruments are tradable assets or negotiable items which underlie a derivative. Financial instruments c ...

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Financial Technology – Fintech

Financial technology (Fintech) is an expression used to depict new tech that aims to improve and digitize the conveyance and utilization of financial services.


At its center, fintech is used to help organizations, entreprene ...

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Fiscal Deficit

A fiscal deficit can be defined as a shortfall in a administration's income contrasted with its expenses.


The administration that has a fiscal deficit has expenditures too far in the red.


A fiscal ...

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Fixed Income Fund

Fixed income is a class of assets and securities that pay out a set level of cash flows to investors, typically in the form of fixed interest or dividends.

Fixed-income security is an investment that pays regular inco ...

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Forex stands for Foreign Exchange. Forex is the commercial center where currencies of different nations are traded. The forex market is the biggest, most liquid market on the planet, with trillions of dollars being traded everyday.

 < ...

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Fourier Analysis

Fourier analysis is a method of representing general functions by the approximate sum of simple trigonometric functions. 


The method is named after mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier who formulated and proved th ...

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Frypan Bottom

This Japanese candlestick pattern is similar to a Western rounding bottom. A win­dow to the upside confirms this pattern. It is the counterpart of the dumpling top.


Normally it should be a signal of ...

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Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis (FA) can be defined as a technique of measuring a stock’s intrinsic value by analyzing related economic as well as financial components.


Fundamental analysts study all the things that have the abil ...

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You might have heard the word fundamentals on TV while watching stock analysis. Fund managers and stock analysts talk about stocks which have strong fundamentals. Fundamental analysis involves evaluating a security to assess its intrinsic value by e ...

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Future Value (FV)

Future value (FV) can be defined as the value of a present asset at a future date dependent on an assumed pace of development.


The future value is imperative to investors and investment managers as they utilize it to evaluat ...

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Futures markets trade futures contracts. 

A futures contract is an agreement between a buyer and seller of the contract that some asset such as a commodity, currency, or stock will be bought or sold for a specific price, on a specific ...

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Gamma is the rate of change for an option’s delta based on a single-point move in the delta’s price.


Gamma is at its highest when an option is at the money and is at its lowest when it is further away from the mo ...

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A gap can be defined as a region of a chart where a stock’s price either rises or tumbles from the yesterday’s close with no exchanging happening in between.


Gaps generally happen when either a news or an event r ...

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General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The General Data Protection Regulation or the GDPR is a legal structure that declares the rules for the collection and handling of individual data from people who live in the European Union (EU).


Since the regulation applies ...

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Giffen Goods

A Giffen good is a product that is bought by low income workers, and that defies law of demand in economics.


According to the law of demand, usually when the price of a normal good rises, its demand falls and when its price ...

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Globalization is the spread of items, innovation, data, and occupations across national boundries and societies.


In economic terms, it portrays a reliance of countries around the world encouraged through organized commerce.< ...

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Gray Market

A gray market or ‘grey market’ can be described as an informal market for financial securities.


Gray market exchanging, for the most part happens, when a stock that has been suspended from stock market exchanges, ...

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Gross Earnings

Gross earnings, for people, allude to the complete income earned before any tax deduction are applied or any adjustments are made.


For public organizations, gross earnings can be defined as a bookkeeping convention, alluding ...

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Gross Income

Gross income for a person—also referred to as gross pay when it's on a check—can be defined as the person's total pay from their employer prior to taxes or other deductions.


This involves earnings from al ...

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Gross Yield

The gross yield of an speculation can be defined as its profits prior to deduction of taxes and expenses.


Gross yield is formatted in percentage terms.


It is measured as the yearly return on an specula ...

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Growth Investing

It is a style of investment strategy focused on capital appreciation.


Growth investing is a stock-buying strategy that focuses on companies expected to grow at an above-average rate compared to their industry or the market.& ...

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Growth Stock

Growth stocks are companies that increase their revenue and earnings faster than the average business in their industry or the market as a whole.
Often a growth company has developed an innovative product or service that is gaining share in< ...

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Half Stock

A half stock can be defined as a stock sold with a face value that is half of what is viewed as to be the standard price. The face value alludes to the par value of a bond, or in some circumstances, a stock.


Half stock can b ...

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Hammers have a small real body and a long lower shadow.

Hammers occur after a price decline.

The hammer candlestick shows sellers came into the market during the period but by the close, the selling had been absorbed and buyers had ...

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Hang Seng Index (HSI)

The Hang Seng Index or the HSI can be described as a market cap weighted index of the biggest organizations that are being traded on the Hong Kong Exchange.


A subsidiary of the Hang Seng Bank manages the Hang Seng Index and ...

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Hanging man

  1. White or black candle with a small body
  2. No upper shadow or the shadow cannot be longer than the body
  3. Lower shadow at least two times longer than the body
  4. If the gap is created at the opening or the closing, it ...

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The Harami candlestick pattern is frequently used in forex trading to identify trend reversals or extensions.


The Harami candlestick is a Japanese candlestick pattern that comprises two candles which ...

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Harami cross

A harami cross is a trend indicated by a large candlestick followed by a Doji that is located within the top and bottom of the candlestick's body.

bullish harami cross indicates that a downtrend is likely t ...

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Hawala is an unofficial way of money transfer, which does not involve any actual movement physical money.


Interpol's describes hawala as "transfer of money without any physical movement." Another description of ...

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Head and Shoulders Top

The Head and Shoulders ‘Top’ is one of two major head and shoulders chart patterns that forms:

  • The most common reversal formations
  • Signals to chart users that a security's price is likely to make a downward ...

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Heikin Ashi Technique

Heiken Ashi comes from the Japanese term 'Heikin Ashi', meaning average bar. 

The Heiken Ashi indicator modifies how price values are displayed on a chart.

A Japanese candlestick represents four pieces of price data in ...

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Historical Volatility

Historic Volatility is the standard deviation of the "price returns" over a given number of sessions, multiplied by a factor (260 days) to produce an annualized volatility level. 

A "price return" is the natural lo ...

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High-net-worth individual (HNI) is an individual or family with liquid resources over a specific figure.


The term is frequently utilized by the financial services sector.


Despite the fact that there is ...

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Hold or holding, can be described as market strategy or an analyst's suggestion to neither purchase nor sell an investment.


A organization with a hold suggestion usually is relied upon to perform with the market or at th ...

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Holding Company

A holding company can be described as a parent enterprise, limited liability company, or limited partnership that possesses enough voting shares in another organization, that it can control that organization's policies as well as regulate its ...

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A hot IPO can be defined as an initial public offering of share in an organization, whose security attracts a lot of investors and for which there is raised demand.

There are different approaches to go public other than an initial public o ...

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Human Capital

Human capital is an intangible resource or quality not recorded on a company's balance sheet. It tends to be delegated as the financial value of an employee's experience and aptitudes. Including resources such as education, training, knowl ...

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Ichimoku Kinko Hyo

Ichimoku Kinko Hyo translates into “one look equilibrium chart” With one look, chartists can identify the trend and look for potential signals within that trend. 


The indicator was ...

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Implied Volatility

Implied volatility (IV) is one of the most important concepts for options traders to understand for two reasons. 

  • First, it shows how volatile the market might be in the future. 
  • Second, implied volatility can he ...

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Impulse Wave

A wave or cycle of waves that carries the current trend further in the same direction.


The impulse wave is a term used to describe a specific pattern found in Elliott Wave theory. 

The impulse wave is one of two ...

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In The Money and (ITM) Out Of The Money (OTM)

In the money (ITM) is a expression that alludes to an option that has intrinsic value. In the money, hence signifies that an option has value at a strike price that is favorable when compared to the existing market price of a stock:


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In-App Purchasing

In-app purchasing can be defined as the process of purchasing of goods and services within an application on a smartphone, tablet or a Personal Computer.


In-app purchases enable developers to publish their apps for free.


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An index is a method to track the performance of some groups of assets in a standardized way.
An index measures the price performance of a basket of securities using a standardized metric and methodology.
Indexes are also created to me ...

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Index Option

An index option can be defined as a financial derivative that provides the option contract holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell the value of an underlying index, for example, the Nifty 50, at the expressed exercise price o ...

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Indicators represent a statistical approach to technical analysis. With the help of indicators, investors and traders can get the secondary measure to actual price movement. Indicators are helpful to confirm the accuracy of chart patterns by looking ...

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Stock market index is a measure of the relative value of a group of stocks in numerical terms. Some stocks which are listed on the exchange are selected and grouped together to form an index. When the stocks within an index change their value, index ...

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Individual Retirement Account

An Individual Retirement Account (IRA) offers valuable tax benefits for retirement savers.
An individual retirement account (IRA) is a type of tax-deferred or tax-free retirement savings account that many financial institutions offer.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a time of significant industrialization and advancement that occurred during the late 1700s and early 1800s. The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and immediately spread all through the world.

&nb ...

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Inflation refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as food, clothing, housing, etc.

Inflation refers to the rise in the prices of most goods and services of daily or common use, such as&nbs ...

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Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An initial public offering (IPO) alludes to the process of offering portions of a private enterprise to the general public buy issuing stocks.


Issuance of public share enables a company to raise capital from public investors ...

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Insider Trading

Insider trading can be defined as the purchasing or selling of a publicly traded organization's equity by an individual who has access to material information about that equity, that has not been in the public domain yet.


< ...

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Interest Rate

The interest rate is typically noted on an annual basis known as the annual percentage rate (APR).
An interest rate is the percentage of principal charged by the lender for the use of its money. 
The principal is the amount of mon ...

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Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk is the probability of a decline in the value of an asset resulting from unexpected fluctuations in interest rates.

Interest rate risk is defined as the risk of change in the value of an asset as a result of volatility in ...

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Intrinsic Value

The intrinsic value of an asset shows the worth of that asset.


This value is < ...

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Inverse ETF

An inverse ETF can be defined as an exchange traded fund (ETF) developed by utilizing different derivatives to profit from a decline in the value of an underlying benchmark.


Putting resources into inverse exchange traded fun ...

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Inverted Hammer

The Inverted Hammer candlestick formation occurs mainly at the bottom of downtrends and can act as a warning of a potential reversal upward.

 It is important to note that the Inverted pattern is a warning of potential price change, no ...

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Investment Advisor

An investment advisor is also known as a stockbroker.
Investment advisers manage money. 

They select financial assets like:
Mutual funds
and then buy, sell, and monitor them within your accou ...

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Investment Company

This is related to investment trusts, closed-end funds, or closed-ended, only exist to invest.

An investment company is also known as a "fund company" or "fund sponsor." 

They often partner with third-party ...

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Investment Grade Bond

An investment-grade bond is a bond classification used to denote bonds that carry a relatively low credit risk compared to other bonds


There are three major credit rating agencies (Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, ...

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Investment Objective

An investment objective is also defined as how a mutual fund invests its portfolio. 

For example

About mutual funds, the stated investment objective indicates a particular fund’s investment goals, based on the wording in ...

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Investment Securities

Investment securities can be defined as securities (tradable financial assets, for example, stocks or fixed income instruments) that are bought so as to be owned for investment.


This is as opposed to securities, which are bo ...

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Investor is a person who allocates capital with the expectation of financial returns in the future. Investors utilize their investment to grow their money. A wide range of investment avenues exists in the market including equity, debt securities, com ...

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Irregular Flat

A type of Elliott wave correction that has a 3-3-5 wave pattern, where the B wave terminates beyond the start of wave A. 


A flat is in progress, implying that a larger pattern is developing. 

It will contai ...

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Island Reversal

An island reversal is identified by gaps between the signal day and the days on either side. 

This is a strong short-term signal.

After an up-trend:

  • The day's Low is above the High of the day before and the ...

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January Effect

The January Effect is a famous market anomaly.

The January Effect was first noticed by Sidney Wachtel, who was an investment banker, in 1942. Looking at data from 1925 onwards, he saw that small-cap stocks had outperformed the market in mo ...

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Jay-Z, born Shawn Corey Carter on Dec. 4, 1969, is an American rapper, music producer, entrepreneur, and investor. With total assets worth $1 billion, as indicated by Forbes Magazine, Jay-Z is the rap artist to become a billionaire.


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Jennifer Lopez

In technical analysis, a rounding bottom in a stock’s price pattern is nicknamed a Jennifer Lopez of J.Lo.


A J.Lo in a stock’s price pattern can be an indication of a positive market reversal, where expectations ...

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John Bogle

John Bogle was the founder of the Vanguard Group and a significant supporter of index investing.


Mostly know as 'Jack', Bogle changed the mutual fund industry by developing index investing, which enables investors to ...

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Joint Account

A joint account can be defined as a bank or brokerage account that is shared between at least two people.


Joint accounts are well on the way to be utilized by family members, couples, or colleagues who have a degree of knowi ...

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Joint Liability

Joint liability can be defined as the obligation of two or more accomplices to take care of an obligation or be answerable for fulfilling a liability.


A joint liability enables partners to split the risks related with taking ...

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Joint Stock Company

The new age organization has its roots in the joint stock organization.


A joint stock organization is a business owned by its shareholders, with every shareholder possessing a share based on the sum of equity bought.


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A journal can be defined as a well described account that records all the transactions of an organization, to be utilized for forthcoming reconciling of and transfer to other formal bookkeeping accounts, such as the ledger.



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Junior Equity

Junior equity can be defined as stock issued by an organization that positions at the base of the priority ladder in regards to the ownership structure.


Common stock is generally alluded to as junior equity since it is subor ...

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Junior Security

A junior security can be described as a security that has a lower priority claim than other securities with reference to the earnings or assets of its issuer.


For instance, common stock is classified as a junior security con ...

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Junk Bond

Junk bonds are corporate bonds that are high-risk and high-return.

Because of the higher risk, investors are compensated with higher interest rates, which is why junk bonds are also called high-yield bonds.

Low-grade bonds may be i ...

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K can be described as a fifth letter added to a four letter NASDAQ stock symbol in order to indicate that the security does not have any voting rights.


The letter K is one of numerous fifth letters that mean something specif ...

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Kairi Relative Index (KRI)

They call it the forgotten oscillator. 

The last time it saw any real significant use was during the 1970s. Traders and investors have all but ignored it in recent decades.

 While the Kairi relative index&nb ...

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Keltner Channel

Keltner Channels are a trend following indicator used to identify reversals with channel breakouts and channel direction.


Keltner Channels were introduced by Chester Keltner in the 1960s, but the indicator w ...

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Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Key performance indicators (KPIs) can be defined as a set of quantifiable estimations used to measure an organization's overall long term performance.


KPIs explicitly help decide an organization's strategic, economic ...

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Key Ratio

Key ratios can be defined as the main arithmetic ratios that outline and abridge the current financial state of an organization.


Key ratios can be utilized to effortlessly to get an idea of an organization's financial st ...

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Key reversal day

key reversal is a one-day trading pattern that may signal the reversal of a trend. Other frequently-used names for key reversal include "one-day reversal" and "reversal day."



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Kin is cryptocurrency. The popular messenger service Kik's cryptocurrency is known as Kin.

Kin launched in September of 2017. 

While standalone cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have paved the way for the industry, more existi ...

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Know Your Client (KYC)

The Know Your Client or Know Your Customer or KYC can be explained as a defined rule in the investment sector that makes sure that the investment consultants have the detailed data about their clients' risk tolerance, investment knowledge, and ...

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Korea Stock Exchange (KRX)

The Korea Stock Exchange can be described as a division of the lot bigger Korea Exchange (KRX, or the Exchange).


Beforehand, Korea's stock market was an independent element.


In the year 2005, the K ...

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K-ratio can be defined as a ratio that analyzes the consistency of a security’s return over the period time.


The information for the ratio comes from a value added monthly index (VAMI), that checks and reports the prog ...

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Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is a worldwide understanding that intended to lessen carbon dioxide (CO2) outflows and the presence of ozone depleting substances like green house gasses in the air. The basic precept of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialize ...

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Law of Demand

The law of demand works along with the law of supply to clarify how market economies allot assets and decide the prices of goods and services that we observe in ordinary transactions.


The law of demand states that quantity b ...

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Law Of Supply

The law of supply can be defined as the micro-economic law that states that, every other factors remaining the same, as the price of a product increases, the quantity of products that providers offer will also increase, and when the price of a pro ...

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Legal Monopoly

A legal monopoly alludes to a situation where an organization that is working as a monopoly under a government command.


A legal monopoly offers a particular item or service at a controlled price. It can either be autonomousl ...

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A liability is something an individual or organization owes, generally an amount of money.


Liabilities are settled over the period of time by the transfer of financial benefits that include money, products, or services.


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Liquidity refers to the ease with which an asset, or security, can be converted into ready cash without affecting its market price.

Market Liquidity

Accounting Liquidity 


Liquid Market

A liquid market can be defined as a market with numerous accessible purchasers and sellers and comparatively low exchange costs. The subtleties of what makes a market liquid may differ based on the resource being traded.


In ...

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Liquidity means how quickly you can get your hands on your cash. 

In simpler terms, liquidity is to get your money whenever you need it.

In other words, liquidity describes the degree to which an asset can be quickly bought or ...

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Logarithmic chart

Logarithmic charts are similar to normal charts except for the fact that logarithmic charts use a logarithmic axis instead of a linear axis.


Logarithmic charts can have a logarithmic scale of any base greater than 1. ...

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London Metal Exchange (LME)

The London Metal Exchange (LME) can be described as a commodities market exchange that deals in metals options contracts and futures contracts.


The London Metal Exchange is classified as a non ferrous exchange, which implies ...

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London Stock Exchange (LSE)

The London Stock Exchange (LSE) can be described as the major stock market exchange in the United Kingdom and the biggest stock market exchange in Europe.


Having its origins in the year 1773, the stock market regional exchan ...

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Long term Growth (LTG)

Long term growth (LTG) can be defined as an investment technique that tries to expand the worth of a portfolio over a multi year time period.


Albeit long term is relative to an speculators’ time zones and personal styl ...

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Long-term investment

Investments which are kept for more than one year are known as long-term investments. The timeframe for long-term investment is different for different individuals or companies. Like for the purpose of capital gain tax long term is 1 year. But most o ...

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Developed by Gerald Appel in the late seventies, the Moving Average Convergence/Divergence oscillator (MACD) is one of the simplest and most effective momentum indicators available. 


The MACD turns two trend-following i ...

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Mark to Market

Mark-to-market (MTM) is an accounting method that records the value of an asset according to its current market price.


The term mark to market refers to a method under which the fair values of accounts ...

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Mark Zuckerberg

Mark Zuckerberg is the self-taught software engineer and self-made multi-billionaire and the co-founder, chairman and chief executing officer of Facebook, Inc.


Facebook was established by Mark in his Harvard University dormi ...

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Market Analysis

Market analysis is a large part of market research and an important component of a business plan.

A marketing analysis is done so that you can formulate a strategy on how to run your business. By taking into consideration certain factors, ...

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Market Cannibalization

Market cannibalization can be defined as a loss in sales brought about by an organization's presentation of a new good or service that dislodges one of its own established products.


The cannibalization of existing items ...

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Market Capitalization

Market capitalization alludes to the total monetary market value of an organization's outstanding shares of its security.


Generally, known as "market cap," it is determined by multiplying the total number of a ...

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Market Fee

A fee that an investment advisory firm charges for making investment decisions on behalf of a client.
A management fee is the percentage of your account value that an investment company or manager charges to handle your account

This ...

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Market Price

The market price can be defined as the present price at which a security or service can be purchased or sold.


The economic theory states that the market price converges at a place where the powers of demand and supply meet.< ...

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Market Risk

Market risk refers to the risk that an investment may face due to fluctuations in the market.


In other words, it is the risk that the market overall will lose value, rather than that one or more stocks ...

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Market Timing

Market timing can be defined as a kind of investment or trading technique.


It is the demonstration of moving in and out of a stock market or exchanging between asset classes dependent on predictive techniques.


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The marubozu candlestick pattern is formed by a single candle. 

In the Japanese language, the word Marubozu means "Bald Head" or "Shaved Head"

Deriving that, a perfect marubozu means a candle with no upper ...

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Maturity Distribution

An indicator of interest rate risk. In general, the higher the concentration of longer maturity issues, the more a portfolio's share price will fluctuate in response to changes in interest rates. 


It Means, for any ...

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Median Market Cap

The average market value of a mutual fund's stocks.
The average market capitalization of stocks owned by a mutual fund.

The midpoint of the range of market caps of the stocks held by a fund. 
There are different ways o ...

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Mid Cap

These mutual funds select stocks for investment from the mid-cap category stocks ranked between 100 to 250 by size 


Larger stocks are expected to be less risky whereas smaller stocks may have a higher potential to grow. ...

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Mining can be described as an indispensable part of a cryptocurrency network that carries out two significant functions.


To begin with, it is utilized to create as well as discharge new cryptocurrency tokens for circulation ...

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Momentum Indicator

A momentum indicator (oscillator) is a technical indicator that shows the trend direction and measures the pace of the price fluctuation by comparing current and past values. 

It is one of the leading indicators that measure the rate ...

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Money Market Mutual Fund

A money market mutual fund is a type of fixed income mutual fund that invests in debt securities characterized by their short maturities and minimal credit risk.

They are among the lowest-volatility types of investments. 

Inco ...

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A monopoly is a situation when a company/organization and its product(s) dominate a industry.


Monopolies can be viewed as an extreme consequence of free-markets, that don’t have any limitation or restrictions, a single ...

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Morning Star

The Morning Star pattern is a three-candle, bullish reversal candlestick pattern that appears at the bottom of a downtrend.


It reveals a slowing down of downward momentum before a large bullish move lays the foundation for a ...

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Mutual Funds

A mutual fund is a kind of monetary vehicle made up of a pool of money gathered from numerous investors to put into stocks, bonds, and other resources.


Mutual funds are managed by professional money managers, who allot the f ...

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Nasdaq was the world's first fully electronic stock market in 1971


The Nasdaq is the second-largest stock and securities exchange in the world, behind only the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).


The N ...

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Negative Growth

Negative growth can be described as a compression in company sales or profits.


It is additionally put into use in order to refer to a contraction in a nation's economy, which is shown in a decline in its Gross Domestic P ...

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Net asset value per share

The value of a single share of a mutual fund. Calculated by subtracting the fund's total LIABILITIES from its total ASSETS and dividing the result by the OUTSTANDING SHARES. Also known as Average Price.

Net asset value (NAV)

&n ...

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Net Domestic Product (NDP)

Net domestic product (NDP) is an annual measure of the financial yield of a country that is balanced to account for depreciation costs. To calculate NDP subtract depreciation from the gross domestic product (GDP).


Net domest ...

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Net Operating Income – NOI

Net operating income (NOI) can be defined as a figuring utilized to break down the profitability of income generating real estate investments.


Net operating income is equal to all income from the property, minus all sensibly ...

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Networking can be defined as the activity of trading of data and thoughts among individuals with a common occupation or special intrigue, for the most part in an casual social setting.


Networking is utilized by a lot of prof ...

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News Trader

News Trader is an expression used to describe a trader or an investor who takes decisions dependent on news declarations. Trading choices are made based on the significance of a news.


Breaking news, monetary reports and othe ...

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night attack

The Japanese candlestick trading expression for a large order placed at the close to try to affect the market. ...

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Nominal Rate of Return

The nominal rate of return can be defined as the measure of money produced by a speculation prior to accounting for costs such as taxes, investment fees, as well as inflation.


If an investment produced a 10 per cent return, ...

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Nominal Value

Nominal value of a stock, generally known as face or standard value, is its recovery price and is typically expressed on the front of that stock.


As for bonds and stocks, it is the expressed value of an issued security, rath ...

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Non Security

A non security can be defined as an alternative speculation that is not exchanged on a open market exchange, such as other securities and stocks are.


Assets, for example, art, rare vintage currency, life insurance, gold, as ...

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Oligopoly is a market structure with a few firms collectively control a industry and, none of which can shield the others from having noteworthy impact.


A monopoly is one firm controlling an industry, duopoly is two firms co ...

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On Balance Volume

On Balance Volume (OBV) was developed by Joseph Granville, a well-known technician, and market letter writer. 

It is a cumulative indicator that essentially measures positive and negative volume.

The formula generates a smooth ...

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One Night Stand Investment

A one night stand investment can be defined as a bought stock that was meant for a long-term investment, however is rather sold very quickly, a lot of the times as soon as the following day.


One night stand investments are f ...

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OneCoin describes itself as a cryptocurrency framework based on the blockchain technology. It is promoted by OneCoin Limited, a organization that works across the world with physical workplaces in Europe, Hong Kong and the United Arab Emirates.


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Operating Income

Operating income can be defined as a bookkeeping figure that gauges the amount of profit used from a business' activities, after subtracting working expenses such as wages, depreciation, and Cost of Goods Sold or COGS.


O ...

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Option Cycle

Option cycle alludes to the expiry dates that apply to the various classes of options.


A recently listed option is allocated a cycle randomly to comprehensively circulate options across different periods of time.

&nb ...

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Option Greeks

An option's "Greeks" describes its various risk parameters.


Options contracts are used for hedging a portfolio. That is, the goal is to offset potential unfavorable moves in other investments. 

Opt ...

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Options On Futures

An option on a futures contract provides the option contract owner the right, however not the commitment, to purchase or sell a particular futures contract at a strike price on or prior to the option contract's expiry date.



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Over Bought / Over Sold

A technical condition that occurs when price is considered to have risen or fallen too far, too fast and is susceptible a pullback. Overbought / oversold indicators (RSI, stochastic) for example) often have values within the range 0 to 100, with over ...

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Over The Counter Market

An over the counter (OTC) market can be described as a decentralized market in which market members exchange securities, commodities, currencies as well as other financial instruments of investment, directly between two people and in the absence o ...

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overbought or oversold

A well-known problem of these indicators is that prices can remain in overbought or oversold territory for several weeks on a daily chart, so they are not able to predict a reversal.


We will present two indicators here that ...

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Par Value

Par Value is the nominal or face value of a bond, share of stock, or coupon as indicated on a bond or stock certificate. 

The certificate is issued by the lender and given to a borrower or by a corporate issuer and given to an investo ...

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PayPal is an e-commerce organization that manages payments between two people or two companies via online money transfers. PayPal enables its clients to establish an account on its application, which is linked to a customer's credit card or ba ...

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piercing pattern

The piercing pattern is a candlestick pattern formed near the support levels gives us potential bullish reversal signs.


It is found towards the end of a downtrend and is quite similar to the dark cloud cover.

 < ...

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Pink Sheets

Pink sheets can be described as a listing administration for securities that exchange by means of over-the-counter (OTC).


Pink sheet listings are organizations that are not listed on a significant exchange like the National ...

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Piotroski Score

What Is the Piotroski Score?

The Piotroski score is a discrete score between 0-9 that reflects nine criteria used to determine the strength of a firm's financial position. The Piotroski score is used to determine the best value stock ...

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Portfolio Holdings

Portfolio holdings may cover a variety of investment products, including:

  • Stocks 
  • Bonds
  • Mutual funds to options 
  • Futures and exchange-traded funds
  • Relatively esoteric instruments suc ...

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Portfolio Managers

Portfolio managers are professionals who manage investment portfolios, intending to achieve their clients’ investment objectives. 


Portfolio managers spend a lot of their days researching current events and financ ...

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Preferred Stock

The expression "stock" alludes to possession or equity in a company.


There are two kinds of stocks - preferred stock and common stock.


Preferred stock investors have a higher case to profits ...

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Pre-IPO Placement

A pre-Initial Public Offering (IPO) placement can be defined as a private sale shares in large quantities before the shares are listed on a stock market exchange.


The purchasers are generally private, hedge funds, and other ...

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Premium is an amount paid periodically to the insurer by the insured for covering his risk.

Premium is also the price of a bond above its issuance price. 


The most common types of coverage are 

Auto ...

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Price To Book Ratio (P/B Ratio)

Organizations utilize the price to book ratio (P/B ratio) to contrast a company's market cap with its book value.


It's determined by dividing the organization's stock price per equity share by its book value per ...

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Price to Earnings Ratio – P/E

We use the price to earnings or the p/e ratio in order to estimate the value of a company. Price to earnings ratio is calculated by dividing Market Price of a stock by its earnings per share or EPS.


P/E proportions are utili ...

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Primary price

Capital market is divided into two types � Primary Market Primary market is also known as primary capital market or new issue market. In primary investors buy securities directly from the company which is issuing the security. When company sell n ...

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The term Profit is used to describe the fiscal advantage earned when income generated from a business activity surpasses the expenses, costs, and taxes engaged in supporting the activity in question.


Any profits earned pipe ...

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The prospectus is an offer document or information brochure issued by a public company used for inviting offers from the general public for subscribing to the shares.


A prospectus is a legal document that is required by the ...

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Public Offering Price

The public offering price is what you have to pay in certain situations to invest in. 

The term is most often used in two contexts.

  1.  POP is an important term in the mutual fund industry
  2. some investors ref ...

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Put Option

A put option can be defined as a contract that provides the option holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell, or sell short, a predefined amount of an underlying stock at a predetermined price within a predetermined period of time.


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Qualifying Investment

A qualifying investment alludes to an investment bought with pretax earnings, generally as a commitment to a retirement plan.


Assets used to buy qualified investments don't get subject to tax collection until the shareho ...

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Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis is a process of analyzing stocks, that utilizes subjective judgment dependent on non-quantifiable data, for example, the executives aptitude, industry cycles, quality of innovative work and worker relations.



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Quantitative Analysis (QA)

Quantitative analysis (QA) can be defined as a strategy that tries to learn nature of something with the help of mathematical and statistical modeling, measurement, and research.


Quantitative analysts seek to reflect a given ...

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Quantitative Trading

Quantitative trading comprises of trading techniques that are dependent on quantitative analysis, which depend on mathematical calculations and number crunching to recognize trading opportunities.


As quantitative trading is ...

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Quantity Demanded

Quantity demanded is the total amount of a goods or services that required by consumers over a given specific of time. Quantity demanded relies upon the price of a good, whether the market is in equilibrium or not.


The relat ...

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A quarter is a 3 month time span on an organization's fiscal schedule that goes about as a basis for intermittent fiscal summaries and the giving out of the dividends.


A quarter alludes to one-fourth of a year and is com ...

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Quarter on Quarter

Quarter on quarter (QOQ) is an estimating system that computes the change between one monetary quarter and the past financial quarter.


The expression is like the year-over-year (YOY) measure, which compares the quarter of on ...

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Quarter Over Quarter (Q/Q)

Quarter over quarter (Q/Q) is a proportion of a speculation or an organization's development starting with one quarter then onto the next.


Quarter Over Quarter development is most usually used to look at an organization& ...

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Quarter to date (QTD)

Quarter to date (QTD) can be defined as a time period that catches all important organization movement that happened between the start of the present quarter and the point at which the information was assembled.


Quarter to d ...

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Quick Ratio

The quick ratio is a pointer of an organization's transient liquidity position and measures an organization's capacity to meet its momentary commitments with its most liquid resources.


Since it shows the organization ...

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A rally can be defined as a time period of supported increments in the prices of securities or indices.


This kind of price movement can occur either during either a bear market or a bull market, when it is referred to as eit ...

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Rate of Return (RoR)

A rate of return (RoR) is the net addition or loss of an investment over a predefined time frame, shown as a level of the investment’s initial expense.


While computing the rate of return, you are determining the level ...

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Real Asset

Real assets can be described as physical assets that have a natural value because of their substance as well as properties.

Some real assets examples would be valuable metals, commodities, real estate, land, equipment, as well as natural r ...

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Real Estate

Real estate or land is property comprised of land and the structures built on it, also the natural assets of the land that include uncultivated vegetation, cultivated crops and animals, water, and any extra mineral deposits.



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The term redemption has different uses in the finance and business world, depending on the context.

  1. In finance, redemption describes the repayment of any money market fixed-income security at or before the asset's maturity date. ...

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Renko Chart

Renko is derived from the Japanese word “Renga” or brick ignores time and the movement is based solely on price. 

Renko charts filter out minor price movements, making them a preferred choice amongst many traders. 


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A resume is an a couple of page formal document that work seekers submit to HRs and job recruiters as a method of separating their work experience, academic background, and special aptitudes.

Successful resumes tempt potential businesses t ...

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Retracement (Pullback)

Retracements are temporary price reversals that take place within a larger trend.

Retracements is in an uptrend are characterized by higher lows and higher highs

  • Retracements are technical indicators utilized in technical an ...

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Return on Investment (ROI)

Return on Investment or ROI can be defined as a performance measure utilized in order to assess the effectiveness of an investment or contrast with the effectiveness of various investments.

Return on Investment attempts to directly quantif ...

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Rights of Accumulation

Allow investors to combine prior mutual fund purchases with current purchases in the same mutual fund or related mutual fund family to qualify for a breakpoint and obtain a lower sales charge.

A provision offered by some mutual funds that ...

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Ripple can be defined as a technology that goes about as both a digital payment network for financial exchanges as well as a cryptocurrency.

It was first announced in the year 2012 and was founded by Jed McCaleb and Chris Larsen.

T ...

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Rising Triangle

A chart pattern containing a series of lows,
Each successively higher than the last, 
A series of highs that are at approximately the same level. 

It is considered a bullish formation when volume increases on the asce ...

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Risk Tolerance

Risk tolerance is the degree of variability in investment returns that an investor is willing to withstand in their financial planning.

Risk capacity often has to do with an investor's income and financial resources.
Risk toleran ...

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Risk/Reward Ratio

The risk/reward ratio shows the reward that can be earned by an investor, for each rupee they risk on an investment.

A lot of investors and analysts turn towards the risk/reward ratio to have a comparison between the expected returns of an ...

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Rounding Bottom

Rounding Bottom is also referred to as “saucer” as it resembles a clear inverted “U” image.

The pattern signals that the existing downtrend is about to finish and the possibility of an uptrend to commence.

I ...

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It was originally developed by J.Welles Wilder.

RSI is a momentum oscillator that measures the speed and change of price movements. RSI oscillates between zero and 100.

 According to Wilder, RSI is considered overbought when a ...

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R-squared explains to what extent the variance of one variable explains the variance of the second variable. 

Therefore, if the R2 of a model is 0.50, then approximately half of the observed variation can be explained by the model' ...

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Runaway or measuring gap

A gap is a price range in which no shares (stocks) or contracts (futures and options) are transacted.
A gap up occurs when the low of day 2 is higher than the high of day 1

A runaway gap is found in the middle of a trend, usually whe ...

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Sales Charge

The sales charge is a fee paid to purchase or sell a specific investment. 

It is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. 

The term is most often used when discussing mutual funds.


A sales ...

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sanku (three gaps) pattern

Also known by the Japanese word sanku, the Three Gaps candlestick pattern contains (surprise, surprise!) three distinct gaps. 


Although there are two different versions of the signa ...

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Scalpers enter and exit the financial markets quickly, usually within seconds, using higher levels of leverage to place larger sized trades in the hopes of achieving greater profits from relatively small price changes.


Sector Breakdown

Sectors commonly used for sector breakdown reporting include the following:

  1. A sector breakdown is the mix of sectors within a fund or portfolio, typically expressed as a portfolio percentage. Sector designations can vary depending o ...

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Security is commonly used for any form of financial instruments but the definition varies from place to place. In some places security specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and fixed income instruments. In some places, it in ...

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Shadowing is an informal way for someone to learn what it is like to perform a particular job at a workplace. 
An individual follows around, or shadows, the worker already in that role.

A shadow, or a wick, is a line found on a ...

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Share Classes

A share class is a designation applied to a specified type of security such as common stock or mutual fund unit.

Class A

Class A mutual fund shares generally have front-end sales charges also known as a "load& ...

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A shareholder can be defined as an individual, organization, or establishment possesses a minimum one share of an organization's security, which is referred to as equity.

Since shareholders are basically proprietors in an organization, ...

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Shareholder Equity

Shareholder equity (SE), also alluded to as stockholders' equity and shareholders' equity, can be defined as a company's owners' residual claim after obligations have been looked after.

Equity is equivalent to a company' ...

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Sharpe Ratio

The Sharpe ratio has become the most widely used method for calculating the risk-adjusted return.

The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. 

Sharpe and is used to help investors understand the return of an in ...

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shooting star

A shooting star formation is a bearish reversal pattern that consists of just one candle. 

It is formed when the price is pushed higher and immediately rejected lower so that it leaves behind a long wick to the upside. 

T ...

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Short Covering

 It means that the trade has earlier shorted and to the square of their positions, they had to buy. 

Since there were so many short positions created in the market, people start buying, and that leads to the market going positive ...

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Short Squeeze

A short squeeze could spell disaster for short-sellers unless they act quickly.

short squeeze is a situation in which a stock's price increase triggers a rush of buying activity among short-sellers. ...

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Short term Investment

A short-term investment is also called a temporary investment or marketable security

It is a debt or equity security that is expected to be sold or converted into cash in the next 3 to 12 months.


Usually, these inves ...

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Short-term investment

Short-term investment is also known as temporary investment. It can be a debt or equity security which the investor can sell or convert into cash in a period of 3 to 12 months. Short-term investments are holds to earn quick returns. Two main requirem ...

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Silk Route

The Silk Route was a noteworthy exchange route that dated from the second century B.C. until the fourteenth century A.D. It extended from Asia to the Mediterranean, navigating China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greece, and Italy.

It was named t ...

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Slow Stochastic

The Slow Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that shows the location of the close relative to the high-low range over a set number of periods. This indicator can range from 0 to 100.
The Slow Stochastic is of two lines, known as th ...

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Small Cap

The “cap” in small-cap stocks refers to a company’s capitalization as determined by the total market value of its publicly traded shares.


Companies that have a market capitalization ranging less than Rs 500 ...

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Sortino Ratio

Retail investors often struggle to select the ‘right’ investment scheme that matches their financial requirements and investing capability. However, with the help of financial ratios like the Sortino ratio, they can evaluate a scheme&r ...

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In the financial world, speculation, or speculative trading, can be defined as the act of leading a financial trade that has considerable risk of losing value but additionally holds the expectation of a critical gain or other significant value.


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Spinning Top

The spinning top candlestick chart pattern is a formation that occurs when buyers and sellers balance each other out, resulting in similar opening and closing price levels. 

Because of this relatively small change in market direction, ...

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Spinning Tops

Nickname for candle lines with small real bodies. And long upper and lower shadows. ...

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Spread Trading

Spread trading is a combination of a long and a short position at the same time in related futures contracts or options, called legs. 


The aim of Spread Trading is to gain profit from the widening or narrowing of the sp ...

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Standard & Poor's (S&P)

Standard & Poor's (S&P) is a major index supplier as well as information source of autonomous credit ratings.

It is also the supplier of the mainstream S&P 500 Index and the S&P BSE Senesex. S&P was established in t ...

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A star is a small real body that gaps above or below a long candlestick occurring the previous day. ...

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An indicator with an upper and lower band around a simple moving average of an asset's price. The upper band value is the simple moving average plus the average true range while the lower band is the simple moving average minus the average true range ...

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Stochastic Oscillator

The Stochastic Oscillator is an indicator that allows for huge versatility in trading. It was developed by George C. Lane in the late 1950s and is one of the most popular indicators used in Forex, indices, and stock trading.



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Stochastic RSI derives its values from the Relative Strength Index (RSI); it is the Stochastic indicator applied to the RSI indicator.


The Stochastic RSI indicator (Stoch RSI) is essentially an indicator.

It is used ...

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A stock is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company.

A stock is a security that represents the ownership of a fraction of a corporation.

Stocks are securities that represent an ownership share in a ...

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Stock Dividend

A stock dividend can be described as the distribution of reward from a part of the organization's income and is paid to a class of its investors.

Stock Dividends are determined and overseen by the board of directors of the company, how ...

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Stock valuation

Every investor who wants to beat the market must master the skill of stock valuation.

Stock valuation is an important tool that can help you make informed decisions about trading. 

It is a technique that determines the value o ...

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Stockholder/ Shareholder

A person who owns shares in a company and therefore gets part of the company's profits and the right to vote on how the company is controlled


An individual, group, or organization that holds one or more shares in a compa ...

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A stock is a general term used to describe the ownership certificates of any company.

A stock is a security that represents the ownership of a fraction of a corporation.

Stocks are securities that represent an ownership share in a ...

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Stocks or Share

Stock is a certificate of ownership in a company or corporation.

It represents the claim on the company’s assets and earnings.


When you hold a company’s share you become the shareholder of that company. T ...

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Stop-Loss Order

A stop-loss order is a request placed with a broker to purchase or sell a stock when it arrives a specific price.

Stop-loss orders are intended to restrain an investor’s loss on a trade in a stock and are not the same as stop-limit o ...

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Swing Trading

Swing trading can be defined as a trading style that aims to catch profits in different kinds of securities over a period of a couple days to a few weeks.
Swing traders fundamentally utilize technical method of stock analysis to search for o ...

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Systematic Investment Plan

A systematic Investment Plan is an investment strategy wherein an investor needs to invest the same amount of money in a particular mutual fund at every stipulated period.


A Systematic Investment Plan (SIP), more popularly k ...

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Systematic Risk

Systematic risk is that part of the total risk that is caused by factors beyond the control of a specific company or individual. 

Systematic risk is caused by factors that are external to the organization. 



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Systemic Risk

Systemic risk is the possibility of an event at a company, entity, or group which can trigger a severe instability or can collapse the entire financial system, entire market, entire industry or economy. In the financial crisis of 2008 systemic ris ...

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Tangible Asset

A tangible asset can be defined as an asset that has a limited money value and generally a physical structure.

Tangible assets can generally always be exchanged for some monetary value however the liquidity of various markets will fluctuat ...

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Tax Exempt Income

Non-taxable income is known as Tax-exempt income


Income is defined as cash payments, services, or exchanges of property. 

For taxation, income is divided into two broad categories; 

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is the science and art of interpreting a stock chart.

Technical analysis is a means of examining and predicting price movements in the financial markets, by using historical price charts and market statistics. 


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Technical Analyst

A technical analyst, otherwise referred to as a market technician or chartist, is a stocks researcher or even a trader who examines and analyzes investments based on previous market prices as well as technical indicators.

Technicians accep ...

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Technical Indicator

Technical indicators are chart analysis tools that can help traders better understand and act on price movement. 


There is a huge range of technical analysis tools available that analyze trends, provide price averages, ...

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Technical indicators

Technical indicators are also known as technicals. Technicals are the mathematical calculations which are based on historical trading data like price, volume, and open interest of a security rather than the fundamental of a business such as revenu ...

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Theta (Options Greek)

Theta is a sensitivity measure that determines the decline in this extrinsic value of the option over time.

To understand theta, we need to first know the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic value of an option. Together, th ...

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Third World

Third World is an expression used to describe a class of economically inferior countries.

The concept of third world countries arose in the 1950s after the second world war and during the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United St ...

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The smallest movement possible in the market price of a security or financial instrument.


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Ticker Symbol

A ticker symbol is a positioning of characters mostly letters, sometimes numbers, that represent specific stocks listed on an exchange or traded publicly.

At the point when an organization issues stocks to the public, it chooses an availab ...

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Time Horizon

Estimated length of time for a plan, program, or project to complete, an endeavor to succeed, an investment to yield returns, an obligation to become due, a right to mature, etc.


The period, usually expressed in years, for w ...

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Time Value

In the options trading world, two components make up an option's price. 

The first is the intrinsic value (which accounts for the underlying security's perceived value), and the second is time value.


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Trade War

A trade war occurs when one nation fights against another nation by raising import duties or by putting different limitations on the opposing nation’s imports.

A tariff or a duty is a tax forced on the products brought into a country ...

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A trader can be defined as a person takes part in the purchasing and selling of financial securities in any financial market, either for his own sake or on behalf of another individual or foundation.

The fundamental distinction between a t ...

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Treasury bills

Treasury bills are money market instruments issued by the Government of India as a promissory note with guaranteed repayment at a later date.

Treasury Bills, also known as T-bills are the short-term money market instr ...

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Treasury Bonds

In a word, a U.S. Treasury bond (often called a T-bond) is a fixed-interest debt security issued by the U.S. 
Any of the various series of bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, usually maturing over long periods

Treasury Department ...

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Treasury Notes

Treasury notes, are similar to T-bonds but are offered in a wide range of terms they mature in two, three, five, or ten years.

T-notes make semiannual interest payments at fixed coupon rates. 

The notes usually have $1,000 fac ...

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Treasury Security

Treasury securities are bonds issued by the U.S. government.


Investing in treasury securities means you're loaning the government money.

Treasury securities are considered one of the safest investments because th ...

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Trend Analysis

Trend analysis can be defined as a procedure utilized in technical method of stock analysis that aims to anticipate the future changes is security price based on recently examined trend information.

Trend analysis depends on the concept th ...

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Trend Following

Trend Following is a trading methodology that, seeks to capture trends across all markets, using proper risk management.

Trend trading is a trading style that attempts to capture gains through the analysis of an asset's momentum in a p ...

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Trend Trading

Trend trading can be defined as a trading style that tries to catch increases through the analysis of an stock's momentum in a specific direction.

At the point when the price is moving towards one overall direction, like upwards or dow ...

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A trendline is a line drawn over pivot highs or under pivot lows to show the prevailing direction of price. 

Trendlines are a visual representation of support and resistance in any time frame. 

They show direction and spe ...

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Treynor Index

The Treynor Ratio is a portfolio performance measure that adjusts for systematic risk. 

Treynor ratio is a measure of the returns earned more than the risk-free return at a given level of market risk. It highlights the risk-adjusted p ...

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A trustee is an individual who is responsible for a property or an organization on behalf of some other individual or a third party.


A trustee is someone with legal control of money or property that is kept or invested for a ...

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Turnover Ratio

A turnover ratio represents the number of assets or liabilities that a company replaces with its sales. 


The asset turnover ratio formula is equal to net sales divided by the total or average assets o ...

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Ultra High Net Worth Individual (UHNWI)

Ultra high net worth individuals (UHNWI) can be defined as individuals with investable resources of at least $30 million, for the most part excluding personal assets and property, for example, a main living place, collectibles, as well as consumer ...

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Underlying Asset

Underlying asset are the economic assets from which a derivative’s price is derived.

An example of a derivatives would be Options.

A derivative can be defined as an economic instrument with a value that is derived from anothe ...

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Undervalued is a financial expression used to referr to a stock or any other kind of investment that being sold for a price assumed to be underneath the investment's actual intrinsic value.

An undervalued stock can be assessed by takin ...

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Unemployment happens when an individual who is effectively looking for a job is unable to find work. Unemployment is frequently utilized as a measure of economic health of a nation.

The most frequent measure of joblessness is the unemploym ...

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Unemployment Rate

The unemployment rate is the portion of the work power that is jobless, communicated as a rate. 

It is a slacking marker, implying that it for the most part rises or falls in the wake of changing monetary conditions, instead of forese ...

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Unrealized Gain

An unrealized gain can be described as a potential benefit that exists on paper, coming about because of an investment.

It is an expansion in the estimation of an asset that has yet to be traded for cash, for example, stock position that h ...

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The term Uptick is used to describe a rise in the price of a financial security since the preceding exchange.

An uptick happens when a stock’s price increases in in comparison to the last tick or the last trade.

An uptick is ...

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Uptick Rule

The Uptick Rule ( otherwise referred to as the "plus tick rule") is a rule set up by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that necessitates short sales to be conducted at a higher price than the past exchange.

Investors t ...

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Methods of Valuation

  1. Market Capitalization
  2. Times Revenue Method
  3. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Method
  4. Book Value
  5. Liquidation Value

In the world of business and fina ...

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Value Added

The expression "value-added" portrays the improvement a organization provides its good or service before offering it to clients.

It tends to be considered as an additional special element included by an organization or maker to b ...

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Value at Risk (VaR)

Value at risk (VaR) can be defined as a statistic that evaluates and quantifies the degree of financial risk inside a company, portfolio or position over a particular period of time.

This measurement is most often utilized by investment an ...

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Value Investing

Value investing is an investment technique that includes picking securities that seem to be going for less than their intrinsic or book value.

Value investors a effectively uncover stocks they think the market is undervaluing.

They ...

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Value Stock

A value stock can be defined as a security that is being traded at a lower value relative to its fundamentals, for example, dividends, income, or sales, making it attractive to value investors.

A value stock is a stock trading at a lesser ...

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Verge XVG

Verge can be defined as an open-source, decentralized digital currency that professes to offer totally anonymous transactions by muddling the location as well as the IP address of the transacting members using The Onion Router (TOR) as well as I2P ...

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Voice - over-Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Voice – over - Internet Protocol (VoIP) is communications innovation that enables clients to interface by sound through an Internet connection, instead of through a analog connection.

Voice - over - Internet Protocol changes over the ...

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The frequency and rate of change of an instrument. Often used as a theoretical measurement of risk. Volatility can be calculated statistically. Implied volatility is calculated by the market prices of options. ...

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Volume can be defined as the quantity of shares of a stock exchanged during a particular time frame.

Each exchange that happens between a purchaser and a seller of a stock adds to the total volume tally of that stock.

One exchange ...

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Volume Analysis

Volume analysis can be defined as the assessment of the quantity of equities or derivative contracts of a security that have been exchanged in a specific span of time.

Volume analysis is utilized by analysts using the technical method of s ...

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volume moving average

Volume Moving Average is the simplest volume-based technical indicator used for visual analysis of trading activity and as as a part of the more complex studies in technical analysis

Simple VMA(n) = (sum of N volume bars) / N...

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The Volume Weighted Average Price (VWAP) is, as the name suggests, is the average price of a stock weighted by the total trading volume. The VWAP is used to calculate the average price of a stock over a while.


There a ...

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Wall Street

Wall Street is a road situated in the lower Manhattan segment of New York City and houses the New York Stock Exchange or NYSE.

Wall Street has additionally been the historic headquarters of some of the biggest brokerages and investment ban ...

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A wallflower can be described as a security in which the investment society has lost enthusiasm, bringing about low trading volumes.

A wallflower often sits in a disliked industry division.

Because of the general disregard shown to ...

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Similar to the triangle but with both converging trendlines (making higher highs and higher lows for rising wedge), trending sharply in the same direction. It is a reversal pattern. Falling wedge make lower highs and lower lows.


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Weighted average Cap

It refers to a stock market index in which larger companies (i.e. with higher market capitalization) have more influence on the index's performance.


An index of stocks in which companies that have a greater overall marke ...

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Weighted average Maturity

The average time it takes for securities in a portfolio to mature.

Weighted average maturity measures the sensitivity of fixed-income portfolios to interest rate changes

For example

Suppose mortgage-backed ...

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Welfare State

Welfare state alludes to a kind of overseeing in which the national government plays a key job in the security and advancement of the financial and social well-being of its residents.

A welfare state is depends on the ideas of fairness of ...

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White Candlestick

A white candlestick reflects a period where the stock’s price has closed at a higher price than where it had opened. It is a point on a stock’s candlestick chart reflecting a bullish sentiment.

White candlesticks reflect a posi ...

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Wilder's DMI (ADX)

Three lines compose the Directional Movement Indicators (DMI): ADX, DI+ and DI-. The Average Directional Index (ADX) line shows the strength of the trend. The higher the ADX value, the stronger the trend. The Plus Direction Indicator (DI+) and Min ...

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Win to Loss Ratio

The win to loss ratio can be defined as the proportion of the total number of winning trades to the number of losing trades. It does not consider what amount was won or lost, but basically if they were winners or losers.

The equation for W ...

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Wire Transfer

A wire transfer is an electronic exchange of assets over a system directed by many banks or move administration offices around the globe. The exchange can likewise be made in real cash money at a cash office. 

Wire transfers take into ...

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WM Reuters Benchmark Rates

WM Reuters Benchmark Rates can be defined as spot as well as forward foreign exchange rates that are utilized as benchmark rates for portfolio estimation as well as performance estimation.

The WM Reuters Benchmark Rates are received from S ...

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A writer can be defined as the seller of an option contract who creates a position to obtain a premium payment from the option purchaser.

Writers can sell call option contracts as well as put option contracts that are either covered or unc ...

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XD can be defined as a sign used to indicate that a stock is trading ex-dividend.

It is an alphabetic qualifier that is used as shorthand to inform investors key data about a particular stock in a stock statement.

Sometimes the exp ...

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Xenocurrency is a currency that can be exchanged in markets outside of its local borders.

For example xamples: Use of the Indian rupee in the United States or the Japanese yen deposited into a European bank.

The word ‘Xeno&rs ...

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Xetra can be defined as a completely electronic trading framework, situated in Frankfurt, Germany.

Started in year 1997 and managed by the Deutsche Börse, the Xetra stage provieds expanded flexibility for seeing order depth inside the ...

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XRT can be described as an augmentation printed after the ticker symbol for a security to show that the security is being traded on an ex-rights basis.

Ex-rights implies that the purchaser of the security does not own rights to buy more eq ...

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Y2K is the shorthand expression for "the year 2000" normally used to allude to a broad computer programming shortcut that was believed to result in extensive devastation as the year moved from 1999 to 2000.

Rather than permitting ...

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Yankee Bond

Yankee Bonds are issued by foreign entities (bank or company). These bonds are issued and traded in the United States and denominated in U.S. dollars. Yankee bonds are governed by the Securities Act of 1933. According to the Act, bonds have to be ...

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Year Over Year

Year Over Year or YOY is a commonly utilized economic tool for contrasting between two or more quantifiable events on an yearly premise.

Examining year over year performance enables for checking if an organization's financial performan ...

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Year to Date

Year to date (YTD) refers to the timeframe from the first day of the current calendar year or fiscal year up to the present date.

YTD data is helpful for analyzing business trends over time or contrasting performance information to contend ...

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Yellow Knight

Yellow knight is a company or corporation which is once planning a hostile takeover attempt on a company but instead decide to propose a merger deal to the target company. Means if you cannot beat a company then better to join it. There might have ...

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Yellow Sheets

Yellow sheets are the bulletins that contain information about the price of corporate bonds on over the counter (OTC) market. In yellow sheets, you can get the information about the bond's high, low, closing price, yield, bid price, and ask pr ...

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Yield can be defined as the earnings created on an investment over a specific time frame.

It's formatted as a rate, dependent on the invested sum, present day market worth, or face value of the stock.

It incorporates the intere ...

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Yield Advantage

The additional amount which an investor expects to earn by investing in a publicly traded company's convertible securities instead of its common stocks or can continue to earn instead of converting bonds into stocks is known as yield advantage ...

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Yield Burning

Yield burning was an illegal practice of underwriter marking up the price of bonds to reduce the yield on bonds. By this amount of tax is reduced which is incurred on fixed income investments. With yield burning major Wall Street U.S. municipal bo ...

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Yield Curve Risk

Yield curve risk is the probability of shifting yield curve in a manner that it affects the values of securities which are tied to interest rate, particularly bonds. When there is an adverse shift in market interest rate, the yield of fixed income ...

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Yield On Cost (YOC)

Yield on Cost (YOC) can be defined as a ratio of dividend yield determined by dividing a security's present dividend by the cost first paid for that security.

For instance, if an investor bought a security 5 years back for Rs. 1400, an ...

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Yield On Earning Assets

The yield on assets or YEA can be defined as a mainstream fiscal solvency ratio that analyzes a financial organization's interest earnings to its earning assets.

Yield On Earning Assets shows how well securities are performing by takin ...

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Yield To Call

Yield to call (YTC) can be defined as a financial expression that is used to refer to the return a bond owner gets if the security is held until the call date, which happens at some point prior to it reaching maturity.

Yield to call can be ...

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Yield to Maturity

YTD measures the annual return an investor would receive if he or she held a particular bond until maturity.


It is also known as redemption yield. As the name suggests, if an investment is held till its maturity date, the ra ...

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Yo Yo

Yo yo is slang used to describe an exceptionally unstable market.

The name is derived from the movements made by a toy referred to as a yo yo, where stock prices continually go up and down.

A yo yo market has no distinguishing char ...

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YTD-Year to date return

Year-to-date (YTD) is the period between the first day of the calendar year and the current date. 


To calculate the year-to-date (YTD) return on a portfolio, subtract the starting value from the current value and divide ...

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ZCash is a digital currency with a decentralized blockchain that gives secrecy to its clients and their exchanges. 

As a cryptocurrency, ZCash is similar to Bitcoin from multiple points of view including the open-source highlight, how ...

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Zero Cost Strategy

The expression zero cost strategy alludes to a trading or corporate choice that does not involve any cost to execute.

A zero cost strategy incurs zero expenses on a person or a business while at the same time improving, making processes in ...

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Zero Sum Game

Zero Sum is a circumstance in game theory in which an individual's benefit is equal to another individual's loss, so the net change in money or advantage is zero.

A zero sum game may have as few as 2 players, or a huge number of me ...

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Zero Uptick

Zero uptick can be defined as a trade executed at the same price as the trade just before it, but at a price higher than the trade preceding that.

For instance, if equities are purchased and sold at $58, trailed by $59 and $59, the last tr ...

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Zeta Model

The Zeta Model is a mathematical model that evaluates the odds of a public company failing and facing bankruptcy within a two-year timeframe.

The number delivered by the model is referred to as the Z-score of the company. The number is vie ...

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Zombie ETF

A zombie ETF alludes to exchange traded funds that are seeing less exchanging volume or expanded investment.

These funds are depicted as zombies since they aren't developing and are probably going to be cut by the issuer.

As it ...

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In the financial markets, zombies are organizations that acquire just enough money to keep  working and service debt, however  can't take care of their obligation.

Such organizations, provided that they just scratch by meetin ...

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Zone Of Resistance

Zone of resistance is a significant topic inside technical method of stock analysis.

Analysts that use the technical method of stock analysis, search for indications that a security price is moving through the zone of resistance as well as ...

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Zone of Support

Zone of support can be defined as a price zone reached when a stock's price has declined to an anticipated low, referred to as a support level.

The zone of resistance can be described as the upper range of a security's price, with ...

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A Z-score is a numerical estimation utilized in statistics of a value's relationship to the arithmetic mean of a group of values, calculated in terms of standard deviations from the arithmetic mean or average.

If a Z-score is 0, it sho ...

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Zero-volatility spread. A tool used in the analysis of an asset swap that uses the zero-coupon yield curve to calculate the spread. The Z-spread is the number of basis points that would have to be added to the spot yield curve so that the bond' ...

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Trading and investment terms you should know. Learn terms like, 52- week range, ATR, Abandoned baby, Candlestick terminology at Nifty Trader.